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Orhan Torul

Associate Professor of Economics at Boğaziçi University

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Inequality in Turkey

In this page, we interactively visualize the evolution of our wage, income and consumption inequality estimates for Turkey, as reported in Tamkoç and Torul (2020). In doing so, we adhere to the uniform guidelines proposed by the Review of Economic Dynamics, “Cross-Sectional Facts for Macroeconomists” special issue so that our results are cross-country comparable, and thus can be contrasted with previous findings on other countries.

For variable definitions and methodological details, please refer to the original article. To download our updated estimates (for the 2002-2019 period) in the Excel (.xlsx) format, please download the spreadsheet document here. You can find the list of abbreviations and brief notes at the bottom of this page.

Wage Inequality

Bokeh Plot

Wage Premium

Bokeh Plot

Income Inequality

Bokeh Plot

Equivalent Income Inequality

Bokeh Plot

Consumption Inequality

Bokeh Plot

Equivalent Consumption Inequality

Bokeh Plot

Comparison of Income & Consumption Inequality

Bokeh Plot


  • HBS: Household Budget Survey (Hanehalkı Bütçe Anketi, HBA in Turkish)
  • SILC: Survey of Income and Living Conditions (Gelir ve Yaşam Koşulları Araştırması, GYKA in Turkish)
  • P90/P50 Ratio: The ratio of the 90th percentile’s value to that of the median, where P90>P50>P10
  • P50/P10 Ratio: The ratio of the median’s value to that of the 10th percentile
  • Gini Coefficient: A conventional inequality measure of relative mean difference. The Gini coefficient takes a value between [0,1] and a high Gini coefficient value indicates greater inequality.


  • The unit of analysis is individual for wage and household for income and consumption.
  • For wage calculations, we concentrate on working-age individuals (aged 25-60) and exclude individuals who do not report hours worked, as well as those whose annual earnings are below 113 (constant 2002) Turkish liras (i.e. half of Turkey’s monthly minimum wage during the first half of 2002).
  • For income calculations, we apply the same left-truncation as we do for wages.
  • Education premium is defined as the ratio of the average wage of college-educated males to that of high school-educated males.
  • Gender premium is defined as the ratio of the average wage of males to that of females.
  • Experience premium is defined as the ratio of the average wage of males aged 45-55 to that of males who are 25-35 years of age.